• Great Smoky Mountains National Park Amphitheaters

    Metadata Updated: March 17, 2021

    THESE POINTS of open air assembly and seating in parks range from the minor, represented by the campfire circle, sometimes termed a lecture circle or council ring, to the large and elaborate in the form of outdoor theater or amphitheater. The elementary expressions are to be found in many parks, while the more extensive developments are apt to occur in large parks appealing to more than local interest, or in metropolitan parks where local or civic interest is well defined. The locating of the intimate circle or ring is largely a matter of proximity to use-demand, as represented by a cabin or camp group, or other such point of concentration within the park. A small plot preferably generally level, but failing that, not too rugged or precipitous, is the only topographic requirement. The larger amphitheater, in its several varying manifestations, should on the other hand be located in a natural bowl wherever possible. Unless existing contours truly invite such development, a remoulding of them to create a natural effect is apt to require an amount of work disproportionate to the gain. If anything short of accomplishment of complete naturalness results from a remoulding of topography in creation of an amphitheater, the park area is burdened with a disfiguring scar that should be rigidly avoided.The minor campfire circle or ring is merely the provision of seating around the community campfire, where the evening hours may be passed with song and story in the warmth of good comradeship and the friendly fire. The campfire is the sole physical essential of this foregathering place in the open. It is often given a fixity of location by the building of seats around it, particularly if conditions of climate or insect life make sitting on the ground unadvisable. Such seating may be merely logs or some more sophisticated adaptation of them, or again may be boulders or masonry construction, where stone is the more abundant native material. But there are no fixed principles, no traditions to be pressed, beyond admonishing an attention to the claims of the immediate natural environment.The principles applicable to the creation of amphitheaters or outdoor theaters are numerous. Probably paramount are the considerations of sight lines and acoustics, here quite as important as for the enclosed auditorium. Many will at first thought regard acoustics as not of the problem, but these should not fail to appreciate that hills and mountains, water surfaces, woods and forests, deflect and echo sound in accordance with their own laws, no less than do man-made surroundings, and call for just as much study and advance consideration.It is important that the stage be to the east or north, so that the audience will not face the afternoon sun. A distant view as background for the stage platform is greatly to be desired, or better still a picturesque cliff as at Pine Mountain, in Kentucky. If these do not exist, a background of trees should be sought. The amphitheater should be encircled by trees, to screen it from view and provide all possible shade for the audience, and to act as barrier against the disturbing noises of other park activities.The outdoor stage is often merely a platform, the distant view or a near-by stand of trees serving as a backdrop. If these are lacking, or some required use of the stage demands it, an artificial background of rustic construction, or of planting, or a combination of the two is created. When the showing of motion pictures is an activity, the extent of the structural background will be dictated by the size of the picture screen. The screen should be removable in winter, should be recessed for some measure of protection, and supplemented with dark canvas curtains to be drawn over it when pictures are not being shown. Where dramatic entertainment is to be offered, some provision of dressing room space is necessary. The stage of the amphitheater, being the focal point, must be outstandingly representative of park character. No

    Access & Use Information

    Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided.

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    References

    https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.csv
    https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.kml
    https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.zip
    https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.geojson
    https://nps.maps.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559
    https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2224857

    Dates

    Metadata Created Date March 17, 2021
    Metadata Updated Date March 17, 2021

    Metadata Source

    Harvested from NPS-Harvest - NRSS Data Store

    Additional Metadata

    Resource Type Dataset
    Metadata Created Date March 17, 2021
    Metadata Updated Date March 17, 2021
    Publisher National Park Service
    Unique Identifier Unknown
    Maintainer
    Identifier NPS_DataStore_2224857
    Data First Published 2015-11-01
    Data Last Modified 2015-11-01
    Category Geospatial Dataset
    Public Access Level public
    Bureau Code 010:24
    Metadata Context https://project-open-data.cio.gov/v1.1/schema/catalog.jsonld
    Metadata Catalog ID D:\IRMA\DataStore\Application\OpenData\v1.1\NPS-DataStore.json
    Schema Version https://project-open-data.cio.gov/v1.1/schema
    Catalog Describedby https://project-open-data.cio.gov/v1.1/schema/catalog.json
    Data Quality True
    Homepage URL https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2224857
    Program Code 010:118, 010:119
    Related Documents https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.csv, https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.kml, https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.zip, https://grsm-nps.opendata.arcgis.com/datasets/5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559_0.geojson, https://nps.maps.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=5071aba071514e29b0c159ff47e09559, https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2224857
    Source Datajson Identifier True
    Source Hash 26654d7511928775470452dc21e3b6b0078f1b48
    Source Schema Version 1.1
    Spatial -84.0139,35.42586,-83.0425,35.84241
    Temporal 2018-11-15/2018-11-15

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